With ISDN, voice and data are carried by bearer channels (B channels) occupying a bandwidth of 64 kb/s (bits per second). Some switches limit B channels to a capacity of 56 kb/s. A data channel (D channel) handles signaling at 16 kb/s or 64 kb/s, depending on the service type. Note that, in ISDN terminology, "k" means 1000 (103), not 1024 (210) as in many computer applications (the designator "K" is sometimes used to represent this value); therefore, a 64 kb/s channel carries data at a rate of 64000 b/s. A new set of standard prefixes has recently been created to handle this. Under this scheme, "k" (kilo-) means 1000 (103), "M" (mega-) means 1000000 (106), and so on, and "Ki" (kibi-) means 1024 (210), "Mi" (mebi-) means 1048576 (220), and so on.
(An alert reader pointed out some inconsistencies in my use of unit terminology throughout this Tutorial. He also referred me to a definitive web site. As a result, I have made every effort to both conform to standard terminology, and to use it consistently. I appreciate helpful user input like this!)
There are two basic types of ISDN service: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). BRI consists of two 64 kb/s B channels and one 16 kb/s D channel for a total of 144 kb/s. This basic service is intended to meet the needs of most individual users.
PRI is intended for users with greater capacity requirements. Typically the channel structure is 23 B channels plus one 64 kb/s D channel for a total of 1536 kb/s. In Europe, PRI consists of 30 B channels plus one 64 kb/s D channel for a total of 1984 kb/s. It is also possible to support multiple PRI lines with one 64 kb/s D channel using Non-Facility Associated Signaling (NFAS).
H channels provide a way to aggregate B channels. They are implemented as:
To access BRI service, it is necessary to subscribe to an ISDN phone line. Customer must be within 18000 feet (about 3.4 miles or 5.5 km) of the telephone company central office for BRI service; beyond that, expensive repeater devices are required, or ISDN service may not be available at all. Customers will also need special equipment to communicate with the phone company switch and with other ISDN devices. These devices include ISDN Terminal Adapters (sometimes called, incorrectly, "ISDN Modems") and ISDN Routers.